The ancient Lake Chad Basin formed during the Cretaceous period, and extends over 2.5 million km2. The lake has undergone massive fluctuations in size, extending to the Tibesti Mountains in northwest Chad at one point during the Pleistocene (Monod 1963; Hughes and Hughes 1992).
Is Lake Chad natural or artificial?
Lake Chad, French Lac Tchad, freshwater lake located in the Sahelian zone of west-central Africa at the conjunction of Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger. It is situated in an interior basin formerly occupied by a much larger ancient sea that is sometimes called Mega-Chad.
Why is Lake Chad shallow?
It is an endorheic lake – meaning that it doesn’t drain towards the ocean. Its origin is unknown but it is believed to be a remnant of a former inland sea. It doesn’t drain into the ocean but it has shrunk by over 90% since the 1960s due to climate change, an increase in the population and unplanned irrigation.
Where does Lake Chad get its water?
Lake Chad is located in the far west of Chad and the northeast of Nigeria. Parts of the lake also extend to Niger and Cameroon. It is fed mainly by the Chari River through the Lagone tributary, which used to provide 90 per cent of its water.
What caused Lake Chad shrink?
Lake Chad, in the Sahel region of Africa (and once the sixth largest lake in the world) has shrunk by 90% over the last 40 years, primarily due to increased agricultural and municipal water withdrawals, but also due in-part to climate change and persistent droughts (Gao et al., 2011) .
Is Chad bigger than Nigeria?
Chad is the largest landlocked country in Africa. … While Nigeria is the 14th largest country, it is the biggest country in Africa in terms of population.
Are there crocodiles in Lake Chad?
Lake Chad itself holds 85 fish species. … There are many floating islands in the lake. It is home to a wide variety of wildlife, including elephants, hippopotamus, crocodile (all in decline), and large communities of migrating birds including wintering ducks, ruff (Philomachus pugnax) and other waterfowl and shore birds.
What kind of fish are in Lake Chad?
The 30 million people living in the Lake Chad region compete over water, and the drying up of the lake could lead to migration and conflicts, according to FAO. Fish production has recorded a 60 percent decline, while pasturelands have been degraded, resulting in a shortage of animal feed, livestock and biodiversity.
Who owns Lake Chad?
Lake Chad’s declining water level has been on the political agenda of the Sahel region since the 1960s. The water is shared by Niger, Nigeria, Chad and Cameroon though it also affects communities in the larger regional spread of the basin that includes Libya, Algeria, Sudan and the Central African Republic.
When was Chad founded?
Chari River, also called Shari, principal tributary feeding Lake Chad in north-central Africa. It flows through Chad and the Central African Republic and is formed by the Bamingui (its true headstream), the Gribingui, and the Ouham, which brings to it the greatest volume of water.
Is Lake Chad going to dry up?
Our results indicate that in tandem with groundwater and tropical origin of water supply, over the last two decades, Lake Chad is not shrinking and recovers seasonally its surface water extent and volume.
How has Lake Chad changed over time?
Lake Chad – a source of water to millions of people in West Africa – has shrunk by nine-tenths due to climate change, population growth and irrigation. … Lake Chad has shrunk by 90% since the 1960s, due to climate change, an increase in the population and unplanned irrigation.
Is Chad in a drought?
Widespread drought and food insecurity remain a major challenge in Chad, affecting some 3.4 million people, including 1.6 million in need of humanitarian assistance. More than 320,000 children suffer from severe acute malnutrition, another 40,000 from moderate acute malnutrition.
What is the main threat to Lake Chad?
The Lake Chad Basin is the site of a large-scale, complex and protracted humanitarian emergency. Factors contributing to the crisis include conflict, rapid population growth and severe vulnerability caused by the effects of climate change, environmental degradation and poverty.